Human Genome Sequencing and Mapping History


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1976: In 1976, the genome of the RNA virus Bacteriophage MS2 was the first complete genome to be determined, by Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium).

1977: The idea for the shotgun technique came from the use of an algorithm that combined sequence information from many small fragments of DNA to reconstruct a genome. This technique was pioneered by Frederick Sanger to sequence the genome of the Phage Φ-X174, a virus (bacteriophage) that primarily infects bacteria that was the first fully sequenced genome (DNA-sequence) in 1977.

1985: "The ultimate goal of this initiative is to understand the human genome" and "knowledge of the human as necessary to the continuing progress of medicine and other health sciences as knowledge of human anatomy has been for the present state of medicine." Candidate technologies were already being considered for the proposed undertaking at least as early as 1985.

1990: Human Genome project began in 1990 and was initially headed by James D. Watson at the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

  In the IHGSC international public-sector Human Genome Project (HGP), researchers collected blood (female) or sperm (male) samples from a large number of donors. Only a few of many collected samples were processed as DNA resources. Thus the donor identities were protected so neither donors nor scientists could know whose DNA was sequenced.

1998: In 1998, a similar, privately funded quest was launched by the American researcher Craig Venter, and his firm Celera Genomics. ($300,000,000).

2000.03 : President Clinton announced that the genome sequence could not be patented, and should be made freely available to all researchers.

2001.02 : February 2001, Celera and the HGP scientists published details of their drafts. These drafts covered about 83% of the genome (90% of the euchromatic regions with 150,000 gaps and the order and orientation of many segments not yet established).

2003.03: Bill Clinton's statement sent Celera's stock plummeting and dragged down the biotechnology-heavy Nasdaq. The biotechnology sector lost about $50 billion in market capitalization in two days.

2000.0707: The first available assembly of the genome was completed in 2000 by the UCSC Genome Bioinformatics Group, composed of Jim Kent (then a UCSC graduate student of molecular, cell and developmental biology), Patrick Gavin, Terrence Furey, and David Kulp. On July 7, 2000, on the web

2000.0626: A working draft of the genome was released in 2000. announced jointly by then US president Bill Clinton and the British Prime Minister Tony Blair on June 26, 2000.

2003: An improved drafts in 2003. Filling in to ≈92% of the sequence currently.

200605: In May 2006, the completion of the project, when the sequence of the last chromosome was published in the journal Nature.





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